A visual change of a scene with relation to time is referred to as an animation. The object’s shape, colour, transparency, structure, and texture are also related to the visual change in the scene, in addition to its change in position. An major distinction between animation and movies, where actors’ performances in real-world scenes are captured, is that animation typically refers to a hand-drawn or artificially created sequence of images. Early animations were created by hand, with each scene being drawn individually on paper before being painted. It was clear that this procedure was highly difficult and time-consuming. Currently, the animation process has become more easier and more potent thanks to the usage of computer technology. Computer animation is the process of sketching graphics and rapidly replaying them with the aid of computer software to give the appearance of movement. An image is shown on the computer screen, then it is immediately replaced by another image that is similar to the first one but has been slightly changed to provide the impression of movement.

A subset of both computer graphics and animation technology is the field of computer animation. A series of geometric transformations—such as scaling, translation, rotation, or any other mathematical technique—are typically used in computer animation to construct a series of scenes. Moreover, any of the following can be changed to create the animation:

Camera parameters include the position of the camera in relation to the subject, its distance from the subject, its orientation, and its focus.

Lighting conditions: They include the kind, colour, and quantity of lights.

Nowadays, the entertainment business uses computer animation extensively to create movies, cartoons, and video games. Additionally, it is employed in many engineering applications, industrial applications, virtual reality systems, advertising, and education and training.

In the beginning, an animation sequence was made by creating various images in various frames and then rapidly displaying them. But, in modern times, animations are produced by computers. Computers are used to create the frames needed for animation in computer animation, which are then rapidly shown on an output device. The four stages of storyboard layout, object definitions, key frame specifications, and production of in-between frames make up the fundamental method for designing an animation sequence.

i. Storyboard layout: The action is outlined in the storyboard. The motion sequence of the object is essentially defined at this stage as a series of fundamental events that must occur. For instance, when developing a cricket animation sequence, the storyboard layout might include the movement and motion of batting, bowling, fielding, sprinting, and other related activities. Depending on the sort of animation being produced, the storyboard may include a collection of rough sketches, models, or even verbal descriptions or lists of the motion’s fundamental concepts.

ii. Object definitions: Following the creation of the storyboard layout, it is time to describe each participant or object in the activity. Typically, the objects are specified in terms of their sizes, shapes (such polygons or spline surfaces), colours, motions, or any other details that can help define the objects. The size of the player, the colour of their uniform, the size of the ball, bat, and the stumps, for instance, might all be defined as objects when making an animation for a game of cricket.

iii. Key frame specs: Defining key frame specifications is the next phase in the animation creation process. An elaborate sketch of the scene at a certain point in the animation process is known as a key frame. Every object in a key frame is positioned according to a certain point in time for that frame, including its position, colour, form, etc. The animation will be smoother the more frames there are. More key frames must be specified for complex motions than for simple, slowly shifting motions. Other crucial frames are spaced so that the time between them is not too long, while some are indicated at extreme places.

iv. Production of interstitial frames: The next stage is to create intermediate frames after the main frames have been determined. Depending on the display medium that will be utilised, an animation may require as many as a hundred in-between frames. For instance, 24 frames per second are needed for film, whereas more than 60 frames per second are needed for graphics terminals. Usually, the motion’s time intervals are built up with three to five intermediate frames separating any two critical frames. In addition, depending on the motion’s set speed, some crucial frames can also be replicated. For instance, 1440 frames would be needed for a one-minute video sequence with no duplication, but 288 key frames would only be needed if there were five intermediate frames between any two key frames.

The Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas published The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation in 1981, which listed twelve fundamental principles of animation. The main objective of the principles was to create the illusion that the characters were following the fundamental rules of physics. But, these laws also addressed more ethereal concerns like character appeal and emotional timing. The following list of the twelve fundamental principles of animation is provided:

Squash and stretch: This is the fundamental idea of animation. Its primary function is to give the sketched objects a sense of weight and flexibility. Specifically for non-rigid objects, the stretch and squash technique is mostly employed to simulate accelerating effects. This method can be used to analyse both simple structures, like the musculature of a human face, and complex ones, like a bouncing rubber ball. A rubber ball, for instance, tends to flatten down when it reaches the ground after bouncing. The squash rule is as follows. The ball begins to stretch in the direction of its motion as soon as it begins to bounce up. Stretch principle applies here. A human face being stretched and compressed is another illustration. An excessive stretching or compressing of the facial muscles can produce a hilarious impression. The fact that an object’s volume is unaffected by stretching or squashing is the most significant component of this theory. In other words, despite being deformed in any way, an item should still appear to have its original volume.

Timing: The most important component of an animation is timing. The distance between motion frames is what is meant. The object will appear to move more quickly the more space there is between the frames. What an object is, what it might weigh, and why it is travelling can all be inferred from the pace at which it is travelling. Time is crucial in animation for portraying a character’s attitude, emotion, and response. For instance, an eye might blink quickly or slowly. A character appears to be worn out and lethargic if it moves slowly. Nonetheless, if it happens quickly, a character appears to be awake and alert. Time can also be employed to convey significant facets of a character’s personality.

In order to make a move or action seem more real and vivid, anticipation is employed to get the audience ready for it. For instance, in order to throw a ball, one must first swing their arm backward. Similarly, in order to jump off the floor as a dancer, one must first bend their knees. To accentuate the movements of the object, these are the preliminary acts that are used. A character might look off-screen to anticipate someone’s coming or direct their attention to an object that they are going to pick up as examples of less physical uses of anticipation.

Follow through and overlapping actions: The acts that are carried out after the original motion is complete are referred to as “follow through.” Follow-through actions highlight how characters adhere to the laws of physics, which indicate that individual body parts will keep moving even after the character has completed the intended action. In other words, follow through depicts how some components of an object move after other components have ceased moving. For instance, even after throwing a ball, a person’s arm still moves. This is a continuation of that. Another key element of animation is the overlapping of actions. It is a common occurrence for bodily components to move at varying rates and intervals. For instance, when a dog runs, every section of its body moves at a distinct speed. His legs move at a different rate than his tail or ears, which move at a different rate as well. You can improve the fluidity, naturalness, and realism of your animation by having an object’s body, hair, tail, clothing, etc. overlap with each other as it moves. It should be remembered that when making an animation sequence, one action should never come to a complete stop before being followed by another. A continuous flow between entire phrases of activities is maintained via overlapping.

Staging: This is the process of presenting a concept in a way that it is fully and unambiguously understood. An idea could be a personality trait, an expression, a feeling, or an action. Its major objective is to make the most important action, personality, emotion, or mood in a scene stand out to the audience so that it can be recognised. Staging aids in minimising superfluous elements and maintaining attention on what is important. It can be accomplished in a number of ways, including by framing a character, employing light and shadow, and choosing the right camera angle and location.

The two fundamental methods of making animation are straight-ahead action and pose-to-pose action. With straight-ahead animation, a scene is drawn frame by frame from start to finish by the animator. In other words, until the entire animation is drawn, the artist starts by drawing the first frame, then the second, and so on. In contrast, pose-to-pose animation is made by first drawing a few essential frames, and then making the images that go between them. The straight ahead action is preferable for creating realistic action scenes since it enables you to create a more fluid, dynamic illusion of movement. Pose-to-pose, on the other hand, enables you to produce more effective dramatic or emotional sequences when the importance of composition and setting is greater. Most people combine the two ways when using computers. In other words, they plan the entire process out first using the pose-to-pose method, and then they make the in-between shots using the straight-ahead method.

Slow in and slow out (also known as ease in and ease out): The fundamental tenet of this principle is that as an object, such as a human body, moves, it needs time to accelerate and decelerate. To accentuate the extreme stances, we therefore include more drawings at the start and conclusion of our animation sequence and less drawings in the centre. As a result, the animation appears more authentic and lifelike. For instance, while at the peak of its bounce, a bouncing ball usually has a lot of ease going in and coming out. Gravity slows it down as it ascends (ease in), and as it descends downward more quickly (ease out), gravity accelerates it until it strikes the ground.

Arcs: In the real world, actions typically take an arced course. That is, everything happens in an arc. The trajectory of a ball when it is kicked or thrown, for instance, is parabolic. So, the animator should attempt to have motion follow curved lines rather than straight line paths while producing an animation sequence. The animation will appear more lifelike and natural as a result.

Exaggeration: Usually speaking, cartoons or animation become static and boring when they perfectly mimic reality. The exaggeration is utilised to liven up and amuse the animation. An action can be emphasised with this effect. Motion can be exaggerated, for instance, by swinging an arm violently and temporarily too far. Exaggeration can also refer to components in the tale or to magical changes to a character’s appearance. But, exaggeration should only be used sparingly and sensibly, never arbitrarily. The basic goal is to give anything more life by making it more extreme, but not to the point where it becomes unbelievable.

Secondary actions are typically employed to add interest and realism to animated scenes. By combining subsidiary activities with the primary ones, you can give the scene more life and reinforce the main action. For instance, when walking, a person can simultaneously swing their arms, keep them in their pockets, or use their faces to convey their emotions. The major goal of secondary actions is to draw attention to the primary activity rather than detract from it. In general, secondary actions are not incorporated during the action but rather at the start and finish of the movement.

Creating three-dimensional drawings and giving them weight and volume is the major goal of solid drawings. Understanding the fundamentals of 3D geometry, weight, balance, anatomy, light and shadow, and other pertinent concepts is crucial for animators. Despite the fact that modern computer animation requires less drawing than in the past because to the tools they offer, animators still need to have a fundamental understanding of animation concepts and style.

Appeal: It’s important to incorporate something that appeals to the audience while producing an animation sequence. A cartoon character’s appeal is comparable to an actor’s charisma. A property of appeal can be charisma, simplicity, communication, or magnetism. It’s crucial to remember that appealing characters don’t always have to be sympathetic or decent; they can also be monsters or evil. Basically, the charm and charisma that are imparted to the character make it seem more realistic and compelling.

Many animation functions, including a graphics editor, a key frame generator, an in-between generator, and common graphics procedures are needed to handle the design and control of animation sequences. Many specific animation languages have also been developed, even though similar animation functions can be coded using a general-purpose programming language like C, Lisp, Pascal, or FORTRAN. The three categories into which these animation languages are divided are as follows:

Key frame systems are specialised animation languages that produce intermediate frames from user-specified key frames. Initially intended as an independent collection of animation routines, these systems are now frequently a part of a more comprehensive animation package. Each object in the scene is initially described as a collection of rigid bodies joined at the joints and having a finite amount of degrees of freedom. For instance, six degrees of freedom, including arm sweep, shoulder spin, elbow lengthening, pitch, yaw, and roll, can be specified for a single-arm robot. This robot arm can have twelve degrees of freedom if the base is specified to be 3-D translational and rotational. Yet, there are more than 200 degrees of freedom that can be specified for a human body.

Systems with parameters: In these systems, the motion properties of the objects can be specified as part of the object specifications. Adjustable parameters can alter an object’s degrees of freedom, mobility restrictions, and permitted shape modifications. Read more about torrenty